Categories
Asia China COVID-19 Ethnicity General Surveillance

How the Xinjiang crisis was made gloomier by the pandemic


Xinjiang detention centres in Onsu, Aksu, as identified by a technical journalist. Source: https://techjournalism.medium.com/open-source-satellite-data-to-investigate-xinjiang-concentration-camps-2713c82173b6

By anonymous author

In this blog post I want to talk about the plight the Uyghurs face in China since the beginning of the pandemic. A crisis like this puts the socially vulnerable in a more vulnerable spot, especially in a country with a sizable amount of its population living in poverty, and has no social welfare system like China.[1] During the various lockdowns in 2020 worldwide, most people were confined to home, many people lost their job or livelihood, with no employment payment, no income or savings, and many struggled to pull through. The Uyghurs and other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang suffered way more than that. The Uyghur communities in southern Xinjiang have much higher poverty rates than the Han communities, as a result of long-term discrimination policies against their Muslim identity. In recent years, their culture, language and religion have been further suppressed by the regime in the name of national security, many fell victim to the “re-education” camps or forced employment schemes.[2]

Xinjiang is a vast region located in the northwest of China, home to over 13 million Uyghurs and over 1 million Kazakhs, who are the ethnic and cultural minorities. News reports and investigations showed that since 2015, numerous ‘re-education camps’ were being built all around Xinjiang, and it is estimated that over 1 million Uyghurs and Kazakhs are being detained in such camps, facing brainwash, mental and physical abuse day by day.[3]

In the beginning of the pandemic, many migrant workers were eager to return to big cities for work, but were forced by the lockdown to stay home for more than two months. As a result, thousands of Uyghurs were being sent across the country, to fill up the vacuum of labour following the first lockdown. Many were forced to wear GPS bracelets to track their whereabouts.[4] According to a report by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Chinese government sent approximately 80,000 Uyghurs to other regions of China to work in factories, including for many international brands like Nike, Apple, BMW and Volkswagen.[5] In July 2020, a New York Times visual investigation found that Uyghurs were also included in a government-sponsored forced labour program to produce face masks, in order to satisfy the skyrocketed global demand of P.P.E.. Much of the mask production was for export.[6] Besides all of this, hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and other minorities were forced to undertake hard and manual labour in Xinjiang’s vast cotton fields and the garment factories, where 20% of the world’s cotton is from.[7]

Another report by China Tribunal also reveals that the detainees in the “re-education camps” are victims of organ harvesting, a practice that is not at all uncommon in Chinese prisons.[8] China has one of the lowest voluntary organ donor rates in the world, with the spreading of Covid-19, there were concerns that the Uyghurs were being “killed-on-demand” for Chinese Covid-19 patients, as China announced its first double-lung-transplant for a Covid-19 patient, who waited only five days for a “consenting” donor to provide a perfectly matching set of lungs.[9]

There were two major lockdowns in Xinjiang in 2020, the first one was from mid-July to early September, when the rest of China reported almost no new cases every day. The same measurements like those in Wuhan were imposed there, people were not allowed to leave their home, some building gates were sealed with iron bars, and residents were forced to take unknown medicine every day.[10] Around this time it was also reported that a mass female sterilization campaign was being carried out among the Uyghur population,[11] similar to the one carried out nationwide in the 1980s and 90s, as a result of the one-child policy.

Being the most heavily policed area of the world, “covered by a pervasive network of surveillance, including police, checkpoints, and cameras that scan everything from number plates to individual faces”,[12] most people could never move freely before the pandemic. Many questioned the scale of the outbreak in the cities, and expressed their concern of possible outbreaks inside of the ‘re-education camps’.[13] Given that ‘[t]hose camps are especially vulnerable to contagious disease due to the cramped cells, lack of medical resources and generally dire conditions.’[14]

The second lockdown in Xinjian was carried out from late October to late November in the area of Kashgar, where most Uyghur communities and ‘re-education camps’ are located, harsh measurements were imposed on its residents again. According to the news reports and studies, the human rights violations in China continue to deteriorate during the pandemic. In January 2021, the U.S. government declared that the Chinese government has committed genocide on Uyghurs and other ethnic minorities of Xinjiang,’, it was by far the strongest condemnation by any government against the Xinjiang crisis,[15] hopefully more countries will take part in the joint effort to end such atrocities against humanity.

Footnotes/bibliography

  1. CNBC. (2020, May 28). China has over 600 million poor with $140 monthly income: Premier Li Keqiang. CNBC TV18. Retrieved from https://www.cnbctv18.com/economy/china-has-over-600-million-poor-with-140-monthly-income-premier-li-keqiang-6024341.htm#:~:text=Economy-,China%20has%20over%20600%20million%20poor,monthly%20income%3A%20Premier%20Li%20Keqiang&text=China%20has%20over%20600%20million%20people%20whose%20monthly%20income%20is,Li%20Keqiang%20said%20on%20Thursday

2. Lee, Elizabeth.(2020, Oct 23). POVERTY IN XINJIANG, CHINA. The Borgen Project. Retrieved from https://borgenproject.org/poverty-in-xinjiang-china/

3. Uyghur Human Rights Project. (2020, February 18). “IDEOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION”: RECORDS OF MASS DETENTION FROM QARAQASH, HOTAN. Retrieved from https://docs.uhrp.org/pdf/UHRP_QaraqashDocument.pdf

4. Dong, Han. (2020, March 12). 大批新疆维族人被强制送往内地工厂外出须戴定位. World Uyghur Congress. Retrieved from https://www.uyghurcongress.org/cn/%E5%A4%A7%E6%89%B9%E6%96%B0%E7%96%86%E7%BB%B4%E6%97%8F%E4%BA%BA%E8%A2%AB%E5%BC%BA%E5%88%B6%E9%80%81%E5%BE%80%E5%86%85%E5%9C%B0%E5%B7%A5%E5%8E%82%E5%A4%96%E5%87%BA%E9%A1%BB%E6%88%B4%E5%AE%9A%E4%BD%8D/

5. Xu, Cave, Leibold, Munro and Ruser. (2020, March 01). Uyghurs for sale. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.aspi.org.au/report/uyghurs-sale

6. Xiao, M., Willis, H., Koettl, C., Reneau, N., Jordan, D. (2020, July 19). China Is Using Uighur Labor to Produce Face Masks. The New York Times. Retrieved fromhttps://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/19/world/asia/china-mask-forced-labor.html

7. Sudworth, John. (2020, December). China’s ‘tainted’ cotton. BBC NEWS. Retrieved fromhttps://www.bbc.co.uk/news/extra/nz0g306v8c/china-tainted-cotton

8. Nice et al. (2020, March 01). The Independent Tribunal into Forced Organ Harvesting from Prisoners of Conscience in China. China Tribunal. Retrieved from https://chinatribunal.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/ChinaTribunal_JUDGMENT_1stMarch_2020.pdf

9. Werleman, CJ. (2020, March 10). Are Uyghur Muslim Organs Being Illegally Removed to Save China’s Coronavirus Patients? Byline Times. Retrieved from https://bylinetimes.com/2020/03/10/are-uyghur-muslims-organs-being-illegally-removed-to-save-chinas-coronavirus-patients/

10. Kang, D. (2020, August 31). In China’s Xinjiang, forced medication accompanies lockdown. AP News. Retrieved from https://apnews.com/article/309c576c6026031769fd88f4d86fda89

11. Zenz, Adrian. (2020, June). Sterilizations, IUDs, and Mandatory Birth Control: The CCP’s Campaign to Suppress Uyghur Birthrates in Xinjiang. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved from https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Zenz-Internment-Sterilizations-and-IUDs-UPDATED-July-21-Rev2.pdf?x12273

12. BBC NEWS. (2021, January 20). US: China ‘committed genocide against Uighurs’. BBC NEWS. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-55723522

13. Dick, S. (2020, August 08). Dual threat: Coronavirus not the only battle in Uighur ‘re-education’ camps. THE NEW DAILY. Retrieved fromhttps://thenewdaily.com.au/news/coronavirus/2020/08/08/chinas-uighur-coronavirus/

14. Rogin, J. (2020, February 26). The coronavirus brings new and awful repression for Uighurs in China. Washington Post. Retrieved fromhttps://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/02/26/coronavirus-brings-new-awful-repression-uighurs-china/

15. BBC NEWS, 2021.

Categories
Class Ethnicity Health Medicine United States Vulnerability

Social vulnerabilities and determinants of health

By Victoria Frohnhofer, BA

“Drawing attention to the central role of human freedoms in health is a statement of philosophical position and a call to social action. ”[1](Marmot)

Ethnic minorities, socially vulnerable people or marginalized groups are terms, which are often associated with struggle. The struggle to find housing, the struggle to vote (if the possibility exists) or the struggle to receive appropriate health care to name a few of these. This struggle has continued into the global COVID-19 pandemic, making it more threatening to certain groups of people than others. 75% of people who died of COVID-19 in Washington D.C. up until June 2020 were of African American descent.[2] This reality within the capital shows just how different realities can be, depending on how much melanin your skin contains. Different reasons have led to this palpable scenario. However, these reasons have been apparent long before the year 2020.

The Crux of Health and Wealth

One may think that health is solely determined by wealth, however this conclusion is a bit too linear. The complexity behind linkage of health and wealth comes with the addition of political or socio-economic progress as well as inequities. Because progress is not produced homogeneously, inequities are a side effect of it. Inequity is therefore what determines health perhaps even to a much greater extent than just wealth does,[3] even though wealth is one of the biggest forms in which inequity can be seen. For this reason, the gaps of health within even wealthy countries can be seen in crisis much more clearly. It is the amount of inequity within a country, which determines the health of its citizens, not how large its GDP (gross domestic product) is. Crisis such as the Covid-19 Pandemic have made this painfully apparent.           

Nevertheless, the GDP is important for tracking the growth and development of wealth of a country. The GDP is able to show the income of a nation as well as the proportion of its productivity within one year[4]. It is certainly a limited form of measurement for a country’s wealth since many factors are left out of the calculation or are up for interpretation. The reason for this is that wealth is defined within the GDP only in an economic way. However, other factors such as the environmental wealth of a nation, the wealth of education, health or diversity within a nation are neglected. As explained below, this is especially interesting when observing the United States of America for the reason of its ethnic diversity. However, by using the GDP, it is possible to examine the relationship between wealth and health to a certain degree and enable us to analyze how and were these two aspects of life seem to relate.

Disparity in Diversity

Socioeconomic differences and the social gradient in health[5] are, amongst other things, determining health in most countries. The social gradient in health is a concept which recognizes the correlation between inequities between social classes and population health.[6] The United States makes for a compelling example because of its ethnic diversity and its use of statistical measurements on the basis of these multiple ethnic groups. It is in this country with the highest GDP globally[7] in 2019, that ethnicity still plays perhaps the largest role in one’s health. Being of African American descent in the United States automatically places your life expectancy on the lowest scale[8] compared to other ethnicities. With ethnicity as the major determinants of health within this exceedingly wealthy nation, it is clear that the overall economic wealth of a nation does not automatically produce health in all of its citizens.                                       

It must be said that ethnicity, economic wealth and therefore health are nevertheless interconnected. Even though the economic wealth of a nation may not automatically produce health in its citizens, the lack of personal financial wealth can very well be the cause of a lack in health. An example is the African American community, for whom the poverty rate was more than 10% higher in 2010 than for other US Americans.[9] Reasons for this high amount of African Americans living below the poverty line are that many African Americans work in the low wage sector and in general, earn lower wages than Americans of other ethnicities, regardless of their workplace.[10] This increases the chance of falling below the poverty line. Thus, by understanding that there is an interconnection between low income and low health,[11] it becomes clear that the African American community faces a much greater struggle in obtaining and preserving their health. The most recent health crisis in the United States, the COVID-19 Pandemic, has made this inequity once more exceedingly visible through a death toll that was different for specific ethnic groups.

Feasibility vs. Possibility 

Considering the knowledge we have in todays global world regarding the correlation between health, wealth as well as ethnicity, the inequity within a nation such as the United States of America is logical and at the same time disheartening. Therefore, it is necessary to view the possibilities that a nation with the largest GDP has to implement political and economic changes in order to produce a shift in this inequity. The fact that this inequity has been a known issue for decades, makes it even more confounding as to why this predicament has not yet been tackled in a sustainable way. One may even hypothesize that it has suited successive governments not to eliminate the factor of ethnicity as a determinant of health. As a result, the possibilities of advancement in health for African Americans are limited, making social vulnerability a continued determinant of health.

References

Bloom, David E. “The Health and Wealth of Nations” American Society for the Advancement of Science, vol. 336 (18th February 2000), pp. 1207-1209.

Deaton, Angus “The Great Escape – Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality”. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Kosteniuk, Julie G, and Harley D. Dickinson. “Tracing the social gradient in the health of Canadians: primary and secondary determinants. Social Science & Medicine vol. 57;2 (July 2003), pp. 263-276.

Marmot, Michael “Health in an unequal world: social circumstances, biology, and disease”. The Lancet, vol. 336 (9th December 2006), pp. 2081-94.


Websites:                    

https://coronavirus.dc.gov/release/coronavirus-data-june-5-2020 (5.12.2020)

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?locations=US&most_recent_value_desc=true (2.1.2021)


[1] Michael Marmot “Health in an unequal world: social circumstances, biology, and disease” The Lancet, vol. 336 (9th December 2006), 2081-94.

[2] https://coronavirus.dc.gov/release/coronavirus-data-june-5-2020 (5.12.2020).

[3] Angus Deaton The Great Escape – Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. Princeton, Universtiy Press, 2013.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Marmot, 2006.

[6] Julie Kosteniuk and Harley D. Dickinson “Tracing the social gradient in the health of Canadians: primary and secondary determinants” Social Science & Medicine vol. 57;2 (July 2003), 263-276.

[7] https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?locations=US&most_recent_value_desc=true (2.1.2021)

[8] Deaton, 2013.

[9] Ibid. (see Figure on p.180)

[10] Ibid.

[11] David E. Bloom “The Health and Wealth of Nations”. American Society for the Advancement of Science, vol. 336 (18th Febuary 2000), 1207-1209