Categories
Health HIV Medicine Russia State

Communicating Disease: The Silenced Epidemic in Russia

Photo by Klaus Nielsen from Pexels

By Ksenia Kogler, BA

HIV/AIDS represents a major global health issue. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) about 38 million people in the world were diagnosed with HIV at the end of 2019. By June 2020, already 26 million of them had access to the antiretroviral therapy (ART), but unfortunately due to the COVID-19 pandemic there is a decrease in the progress of providing the therapy to people.[1]

In the Russian Federation, the number of infections is increasing since the beginning of the epidemic. By the end of 2019, the total number of Russians living with HIV reached 1.1 million according to the statistical data provided by the Federal Research and Methodological Centre for AIDS Prevention and Control. The HIV prevalence in the population increased accordingly, approaching 0.75% of the general population and 1.42% of the population aged 15-49 years[2], the highest number in Eurasia.

Mass media often uses the term “silenced epidemic.” The problem of communicating the disease lies also in the statistics. Officially, the term epidemic is used only when the amount of infected people is over 1% of the population, but in Russia, only in 13 regions more than 1% of residents are infected and in general in 35 regions HIV prevalence is above 0.5%, which makes it more difficult to use this term. However, in official documents the term epidemic has been used more often over the past years.

There is no doubt that one of the main steps for defeating the disease is to inform the population. In Russia, not only public awareness is insufficient, but also the state is reluctant to include the issue on the national agenda. Mass media, on the other hand, frequently uses misleading clichés, such as “plague of the 20th (21st) century” and “at-risk groups,” as well as discriminatory labels such as “homosexuals,” “drug addicts,” etc.

This negative framing has a history. In the second half of the 1980s and early 1990s, the common stereotype was that AIDS was a threat coming from the United States and Western countries as “a focus of the evils of the capitalist system.” In the headlines of articles from 1986 to 1994, the expressions “American syndrome,” “AIDS truck” and “plague from the West” were used. This representation of the disease has formed the opinion in the society that people with HIV/AIDS are very contagious, dangerous and dirty, which has entailed a certain “AIDSophobia,” as well as discrimination against people at risk and people living with HIV as well as their isolation. There is still a lack of awareness in the population about what HIV is, how the latter is different from AIDS and how the HIV virus can be transmitted. Furthermore, it is still little known that it is not a problem limited to homosexuals, drug users or sex workers.

In 2016 the Government of the Russian Federation approved the “State Strategy 2016: Countering the spread of HIV in the Russian Federation for the period until 2020 and beyond”[3], which declared HIV outreach a priority for primary HIV prevention. This strategy contained a specialized federal information resource to counteract the spread of HIV, which included large-scale communication campaigns, comprehensive communication projects, nationwide events, annual specialist forums, and the operation of a specialized information online portal on HIV and AIDS. Unfortunately, there is still no official data available about the results.

Vadim Pokrovsky, head of the Federal Research and Methodological Centre for AIDS Prevention and Control, commented in an interview in 2019 on another important problem that makes government officials reluctant to conduct extensive information campaigns. He explained: “The bet is on the religiosity of the population. The rules of behaviour should be in line with Christian traditions, which in itself, as some believe, should reduce the spread of HIV infection. But, as we can see, the epidemic does not depend on the fact that the so-called spirituality and ideology are promoted in Russia. Not a single official in our country has yet uttered the word “condom” in public. And condoms, by the way, are unaffordable for many in Russia. If it costs the same as a bottle of beer, then there is no telling what people will be more willing to buy with that money. It is necessary to lower the price and increase their availability to low-income people.”[4] The lack of sex education in Russia is one of the reasons why it is difficult to discuss the issue. Even within families, parents often avoid talking to their children about sex, hoping that the child will somehow find out on his or her own.

An excellent example to see the strong difference in discourse across different media platforms were two films on HIV released in 2020. The first film was released on 11 February on the YouTube channel of the well-known Russian journalist Yury Dud, who has become popular with his interviews with celebrities from various fields. The film features the stories of real people, explores the problem of stigmatization, and discusses not only preventive measures, but also testing and treatment methods. In addition, the contact details of the responsible centres and a strategy for dealing with a positive test result are given. In the documentary, accessible, simple, precise, and open vocabulary is used. The film went viral and has been watched by almost 20 million people. What is more, the film inspired a panel discussion on HIV prevention and treatment in Russia that was held in the State Duma on 21 February.

The second example is the HIV/AIDS prevention film, “AGAINST AIDS: The View of Two Generations. A value-based navigation” produced by the Moscow City Health Department on 1 December 2020. This film is aimed more at parents as it calls on them to talk more to their children about the issue in question. However, although the usual stereotypes are explained in the film, they still remain a focus. It also remains unclear, which role the state structures will play in providing this information to more parents, as this film was shown for discussion within universities.

Overall, a positive development can be seen in the provision of reliable information about HIV in Russia. Unfortunately, so far only outbreaks of public outcry have forced representatives of the authorities to pay more attention to the problem. In the meantime, much of the outreach work is done by NGOs in the Russian Federation, which actively use Instagram accounts as well as other social media to educate young people about the disease and its prevention, and to inform them about news and upcoming events related to the topic.

Bibliography:

AGAINST AIDS: The View of Two Generations. A value-based navigation. 2020 URL: https://youtu.be/_vcXKC0KJvA [Accessed: 07.02.2021]

Barysheva. E., Deutsche Welle. Why HIV-related deaths are on the rise in Russia. 2019. URL: https://p.dw.com/p/3NG65 [Accessed: 29.01.2021]

Federal Scientific and Methodological Centre for AIDS Prevention and Control., (2020) “HIV-INFECTION.” Information bulletin No 45. Moscow.

Government of the Russian Federation (2016). No 2203-r, Moscow. “State Strategy 2016: Countering the spread of HIV in the Russian Federation for the period until 2020 and beyond”

HIV in Russia (Eng & Rus subtitles). 2020. URL: https://youtu.be/GTRAEpllGZo [Accessed: 07.02.2021]

World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS. 2020. URL: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids [Accessed: 28.01.2021]

Yasaveev I.G., (2006) “The media and the HIV/AIDS situation in Russia.” Sociological Studies no. 12, pp. 89-94


[1] World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS. 2020. URL: https://www.who.int/news-room/factsheets/detail/hiv-aids [Accessed: 28.01.2021]

[2] Federal Scientific and Methodological Centre for AIDS Prevention and Control., (2020) “HIV-INFECTION.” Information bulletin No 45. Moscow.

[3] Government of the Russian Federation (2016). No 2203-r, Moscow. “State Strategy 2016: Countering the spread of HIV in the Russian Federation for the period until 2020 and beyond”

[4] Barysheva. E., Deutsche Welle. Why HIV-related deaths are on the rise in Russia. 2019. URL: https://p.dw.com/p/3NG65 [Accessed: 29.01.2021]

Categories
COVID-19 Diplomacy Geopolitics Health Humanitarianism International Health Latin America Medicine United States

Internationalizing Cuban Medical Internationalism

A doctor’s surgery in Jaimanitas, Cuba. Source: Soydcuba, CC BY-SA 3.0, Wikimedia Commons

By Nicolas Friden, BA

As many different countries choose many different approaches in order to fight the virus, it still remains a huge task, even for the majority of countries in the developed world. As countries with a functioning health care system like France or even Germany struggle to contain the outbreak of the virus.

If the Covid-19 epidemic has shown one thing, it might well be that despite our belief we cannot control any and every disease. While somehow most Western countries might come through this pandemic relatively unharmed, it has still shown us that we have a lot to learn about our approach to a functioning medical system.

One country that frequently eclipses the rest of the World when it comes to medical expertise and a functioning heath care system is Cuba. While many are aware that Cuban doctors are sent to a lot of different countries, especially poorer ones, the proportions of this aid and cooperation system are less known.

However, if this system of health cooperation is functioning so well, why don’t any of the major countries in the World aspire to imitate some of its aspects in order to improve their own health diplomacy? Is the capitalist world too stubborn to adopt good ideas from other systems?

While Cuba is a relatively poor country compared to most of the Western World, this has never been an excuse for not providing medical aid and medical assistance to those most in need in any part of the World. For example, as Hurricane George devastated Haiti in 1998, Cuba immediately sent a force of 200 medical staff to help the local population. But the Cuban model doesn’t stop at immediate medical relief. This is actually only the beginning. After the initial damage is more or less under control, Cuban doctors and medical staff usually stay there and begin to train and treat the patients in the devastated country so as to provide development assistance to the local health authorities. This includes the process of transmitting knowledge to the local population by either training staff on the ground, or, more importantly even, by providing local students with the chance to acquire a medical degree in Cuba. This allows fully trained medical personnel to come back and be able to help the local population where it is most needed.[1]

This feat is even more impressive if you consider that every single step of the way is free of charge. This is seen by some as a true act of solidarity to the ones that are most in need. This is particularly astonishing as Cuba didn’t have a lot of support and of trading partners after the Soviet Union collapsed. In the early 1990s, male body weight in Cuba fell by 20-25 pound on average and public transportation was cut by 80%. Still, even in these difficult times for the country, its foreign policy regarding health remained the same, and Cuba continued assisting others where and when they needed it. [2]

So why is it that Western countries are neither discussing nor adopting the Cuban model to some extent?

The two parts of this question might well be closely linked to each other, as the West and in particular the United States have always had a hard time accepting Cuba’s existence in the first place. Since Cuba has a socialist government, it was always viewed as a possible threat in Washington, which imposed a trade embargo on the country, already in 1958. Writing this in 2021, when the Soviet Union is long gone, and an East West divide is not so visible anymore, it is astonishing that this embargo remains in place.

This might be one reason why Western media and policy-makers remain reluctant to fully acknowledge the real role Cuba plays when it comes to global medical relief. This whole situation really is an indictment on most powerful Western governments, as they remain unable to even acknowledge that their way of thinking might not be the best or even the only way.

As the Covid-19 pandemic rages on stronger than ever (especially in the United States, the one country that will not in any case acknowledge Cuba’s know-how or accept its existence), the Cuban situation compared to the rest of the World remains under control for the moment and Cuba is only waiting for the opportunity to help its neighbours[3].

It remains difficult to see a change of course for the United States, when it comes to its relationship with Cuba and its reluctance to accept any kind of help or advice coming from this country, but maybe if the rest of the World starts implementing some Cuban medical policies, the US eventually could follow the same path.


[1] John M. Kirk, “Cuban Medical Internationalism and Its Role in Cuban Foreign Policy,” Diplomacy & Statecraft 20, no. 2 (August 5, 2009): 275–90.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Worldometers.info/coronavirus

Categories
COVID-19 Health Medicine Security State Surveillance

Podcast: COVID-19 in the history of biopolitics

By Nicolas Friden BA & Carlos Solsona Ribes BA & Camilla Wallner BA

This podcast episode discusses COVID-19 and the vaccination debate in the context of the history of biopolitics.

Categories
Class Ethnicity Health Medicine United States Vulnerability

Social vulnerabilities and determinants of health

By Victoria Frohnhofer, BA

“Drawing attention to the central role of human freedoms in health is a statement of philosophical position and a call to social action. ”[1](Marmot)

Ethnic minorities, socially vulnerable people or marginalized groups are terms, which are often associated with struggle. The struggle to find housing, the struggle to vote (if the possibility exists) or the struggle to receive appropriate health care to name a few of these. This struggle has continued into the global COVID-19 pandemic, making it more threatening to certain groups of people than others. 75% of people who died of COVID-19 in Washington D.C. up until June 2020 were of African American descent.[2] This reality within the capital shows just how different realities can be, depending on how much melanin your skin contains. Different reasons have led to this palpable scenario. However, these reasons have been apparent long before the year 2020.

The Crux of Health and Wealth

One may think that health is solely determined by wealth, however this conclusion is a bit too linear. The complexity behind linkage of health and wealth comes with the addition of political or socio-economic progress as well as inequities. Because progress is not produced homogeneously, inequities are a side effect of it. Inequity is therefore what determines health perhaps even to a much greater extent than just wealth does,[3] even though wealth is one of the biggest forms in which inequity can be seen. For this reason, the gaps of health within even wealthy countries can be seen in crisis much more clearly. It is the amount of inequity within a country, which determines the health of its citizens, not how large its GDP (gross domestic product) is. Crisis such as the Covid-19 Pandemic have made this painfully apparent.           

Nevertheless, the GDP is important for tracking the growth and development of wealth of a country. The GDP is able to show the income of a nation as well as the proportion of its productivity within one year[4]. It is certainly a limited form of measurement for a country’s wealth since many factors are left out of the calculation or are up for interpretation. The reason for this is that wealth is defined within the GDP only in an economic way. However, other factors such as the environmental wealth of a nation, the wealth of education, health or diversity within a nation are neglected. As explained below, this is especially interesting when observing the United States of America for the reason of its ethnic diversity. However, by using the GDP, it is possible to examine the relationship between wealth and health to a certain degree and enable us to analyze how and were these two aspects of life seem to relate.

Disparity in Diversity

Socioeconomic differences and the social gradient in health[5] are, amongst other things, determining health in most countries. The social gradient in health is a concept which recognizes the correlation between inequities between social classes and population health.[6] The United States makes for a compelling example because of its ethnic diversity and its use of statistical measurements on the basis of these multiple ethnic groups. It is in this country with the highest GDP globally[7] in 2019, that ethnicity still plays perhaps the largest role in one’s health. Being of African American descent in the United States automatically places your life expectancy on the lowest scale[8] compared to other ethnicities. With ethnicity as the major determinants of health within this exceedingly wealthy nation, it is clear that the overall economic wealth of a nation does not automatically produce health in all of its citizens.                                       

It must be said that ethnicity, economic wealth and therefore health are nevertheless interconnected. Even though the economic wealth of a nation may not automatically produce health in its citizens, the lack of personal financial wealth can very well be the cause of a lack in health. An example is the African American community, for whom the poverty rate was more than 10% higher in 2010 than for other US Americans.[9] Reasons for this high amount of African Americans living below the poverty line are that many African Americans work in the low wage sector and in general, earn lower wages than Americans of other ethnicities, regardless of their workplace.[10] This increases the chance of falling below the poverty line. Thus, by understanding that there is an interconnection between low income and low health,[11] it becomes clear that the African American community faces a much greater struggle in obtaining and preserving their health. The most recent health crisis in the United States, the COVID-19 Pandemic, has made this inequity once more exceedingly visible through a death toll that was different for specific ethnic groups.

Feasibility vs. Possibility 

Considering the knowledge we have in todays global world regarding the correlation between health, wealth as well as ethnicity, the inequity within a nation such as the United States of America is logical and at the same time disheartening. Therefore, it is necessary to view the possibilities that a nation with the largest GDP has to implement political and economic changes in order to produce a shift in this inequity. The fact that this inequity has been a known issue for decades, makes it even more confounding as to why this predicament has not yet been tackled in a sustainable way. One may even hypothesize that it has suited successive governments not to eliminate the factor of ethnicity as a determinant of health. As a result, the possibilities of advancement in health for African Americans are limited, making social vulnerability a continued determinant of health.

References

Bloom, David E. “The Health and Wealth of Nations” American Society for the Advancement of Science, vol. 336 (18th February 2000), pp. 1207-1209.

Deaton, Angus “The Great Escape – Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality”. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Kosteniuk, Julie G, and Harley D. Dickinson. “Tracing the social gradient in the health of Canadians: primary and secondary determinants. Social Science & Medicine vol. 57;2 (July 2003), pp. 263-276.

Marmot, Michael “Health in an unequal world: social circumstances, biology, and disease”. The Lancet, vol. 336 (9th December 2006), pp. 2081-94.


Websites:                    

https://coronavirus.dc.gov/release/coronavirus-data-june-5-2020 (5.12.2020)

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?locations=US&most_recent_value_desc=true (2.1.2021)


[1] Michael Marmot “Health in an unequal world: social circumstances, biology, and disease” The Lancet, vol. 336 (9th December 2006), 2081-94.

[2] https://coronavirus.dc.gov/release/coronavirus-data-june-5-2020 (5.12.2020).

[3] Angus Deaton The Great Escape – Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. Princeton, Universtiy Press, 2013.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Marmot, 2006.

[6] Julie Kosteniuk and Harley D. Dickinson “Tracing the social gradient in the health of Canadians: primary and secondary determinants” Social Science & Medicine vol. 57;2 (July 2003), 263-276.

[7] https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?locations=US&most_recent_value_desc=true (2.1.2021)

[8] Deaton, 2013.

[9] Ibid. (see Figure on p.180)

[10] Ibid.

[11] David E. Bloom “The Health and Wealth of Nations”. American Society for the Advancement of Science, vol. 336 (18th Febuary 2000), 1207-1209

Categories
General International Health Medicine Smallpox

Podcast: The World Health Organisation and the Eradication of Smallpox

Logo certifying the eradication of smallpox in Somalia, and soon thereafter, in the world, 1979. © WHO

By Victoria Fronhofer BA & Beverly Mtui BA

This podcast features an interview with a fictional historical medical scientist discussing the only case of an eradication of a disease (smallpox), the WHO’s role in achieving this, and why the world has not succeeded in eradicating any diseases since.

 

Recommended literature:

  • Cueto, M. (et.al.) (2019): The World Health Organization: A History. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.  
  • Manela, E. (2018). Smallpox and the Globalization of Development. In S. Macekura & E. Manela (Eds.), The Development Century: A Global History (Global and International History, pp. 83-104). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108678940.005 
  • Reinhardt, B. (2015): The End of a Global Pox: America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era. Chapel Hill:  The University of North Carolina Press

 

 

 

Categories
COVID-19 International Health Medicine Surveillance

Epidemiological Surveillance: A Little Guide to Monitoring Disease

Source: https://www.un.org/en/coronavirus

By Camilla Wallner, BA

What is epidemiological surveillance?

Epidemiological surveillance is defined as the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data that is essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.[1] The aim is to observe, study and analyze any given infectious disease in order to get a better understanding of its spreading and its impacts on a given population.

It is the foundation for immediate action as well as long-term strategies in order to keep a disease at bay. Epidemiological surveillance falls under the competence of national authorities. However, international agencies and organisations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) play an increasingly important role ever since the SARS breakout in 2003 and even more so in the light of recent events and the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. A rapid communication on an international level, the collection of background data as well as data interpretation of climatic variations are important tools in controlling and predicting the outbreak of diseases including zoonoses. Satellite surveillance of vegetation growth, for instance, is used as an indicator of rising vector numbers, thus enables the prediction of vector-borne diseases. There are different strategies for monitoring diseases, such as passive and active surveillance.

Active surveillance vs. passive surveillance

In order to collect data the different surveillance strategies draw their information directly from the source, notably health care workers. Passive surveillance is the most commonly used surveillance strategy and relies on surveillance forms filled out by health care personnel, which are periodically collected from health care facilities. The aim is to draw an approximate picture in order to assess current trends. However, it is a very shallow method as it is based on minimal data and does not offer many incentives to health care providers to actively engage in the process of data collection. It is common for health care workers to only partially fill out those forms, to neglect certain aspects or to stay vague in the description of symptoms.

One example that illustrates this problem is vaccines. Vaccines are known for being very cost-effective. In other words: the benefits outweigh the risks by far. However, clinical trials for vaccines are very costly, which is why post-licensure evaluations (for vaccines or drugs that are already licensed and allowed on the market) are often based on the results of passive surveillance in order to detect and monitor adverse events. Unfortunately, the results drawn from passive surveillance are often unreliable due to an insufficient proof of causality between the vaccine or drug in question and specific symptoms.  However, passive surveillance is still used for the evaluation of contraindications to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and also for evaluating the risks of combined or simultaneous vaccinations. In essence, in the case of vaccine adverse events, unwanted symptoms or side-effects of a vaccination, there appears to be a significant trend of underreporting coupled with adverse event reports that lack precision and specification.[2]

In contrast, active surveillance institutions such as healthcare providers, work places, laboratories, nursing homes, or schools etc. are directly contacted by state authorities in order to obtain more detailed information. Both strategies have their advantages as well as their drawbacks. On the upside, passive surveillance can effortlessly be conducted on an on-going basis and reaches a broader population pool. On the downside, passive surveillance is known to provide incomplete data due to underreporting and is therefore suited for routine surveillance tasks. Active surveillance has the benefit that data is collected in a more inquisitive way and therefore requires a more intense mobilization of resources. It therefore provides more accurate data and is primarily used to investigate serious diseases, which display a potential risk to public health.

Other surveillance methods also exist, such as behavioral risk factor surveillance, outbreak surveillance, sentinel surveillance and syndromic surveillance but to name a few. Behavioral risk factor surveillance is based on an ongoing and systematic surveillance of data in order to identify possible risk factors for the outbreak of a disease, whereas outbreak surveillance is used to find the source of the outbreak via active surveillance methods. Sentinel surveillance focuses on identifying disease trends and which groups of a population are at a greater risk of contracting a disease. The aim of syndromic surveillance is to identify illness clusters in their early stages in order to limit a potential outbreak.

Alternative surveillance modi

On top of the classic surveillance methods, countries such as China are using modern technology in the battle against disease. For example, the China Infectious Diseases Automated-Alert and Response System (CIDARS) is an early warning model and a new epidemiological surveillance method. CIDARS is based on a mobile phone network which has a list of all relevant phone numbers of the epidemic staff on all levels from the national level down to the provincial level in order to inform the key personnel involved by SMS providing any given health facility reports a case.[3]

Another big data pool or complementary channel of information is social media. An increasing number of organizations including scientific institutions seek to use data from social media platforms. However, regulations relating to the protection of personal data are at the source of major challenges in this field – which calls upon legal and ethical guidelines establishing a threshold that should not be overstepped. [4] Putting modern technology at use for epidemiological surveillance appears a pertinent path in the future, although there are a few more practical and ethical obstacles to overcome in order to replace present day surveillance tools.

The WHO – a global response to a global threat

The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a crucial role in epidemiological surveillance and disease prevention worldwide. Its principles for the implementation of mass vaccinations as well as the WHO’s guidelines in the case of a pandemic are an important basis for the prevention and control of illness on an international level. Ever since the outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic, the recommendations of the WHO have gained unprecedented importance, notably in terms of surveillance strategies as well as strategies in combatting the new virus. As the topic of mass vaccinations has turned into an issue of major controversy, the organization recommends carrying out a risk assessment in order to evaluate whether the potential benefits of a mass vaccination outweigh the risks (risk-benefit criteria). Furthermore, the WHO proceeds with recommendations related to the coordination and planning of such mass vaccination campaigns.[5]

More generally, the WHO plays an important role in shaping the actions of major decision-makers, such as governments, independent laboratories, health care institutions or pharmaceutical companies in surveillance. However, the type of disease surveillance used to detect an illness or the type of remedy deployed in order to eradicate a disease are at the discretion of national actors. Public health policies are still a national matter and, even if international organizations play a role in shaping those policies, state sovereignty cannot be violated. The WHO plays a central role in coordinating global health threats – yet its capacities are purely advisory and it has no enforcement power. [6]

It should also be emphasized that there is a major asymmetry when comparing the scope of action of developed countries to the possibilities of developing and underdeveloped nations. While global surveillance initiatives as well as WHO recommendations may be efficient in developed countries, developing countries struggle from the additional pressure put on their already fragile health systems. It may lead to an undue shift of resources and commitment from already highly prevalent and preexisting diseases, which should however not be left unattended.

Conclusion

The aim of this blog post was to create a better understanding of the existing mechanisms in the field of disease prevention by presenting its central tools and most important actors, such as different types of epidemiological surveillance and the modus operandi of the WHO. Nevertheless, it is also important to outline the limits of the above-mentioned strategies as well as to show new potential analytical tools that are on the rise. To conclude, it is crucial to create awareness of the difficulties developing countries might have in following the WHO’s recommendations when combatting an infectious disease and that many countries lack the trained personnel as well as the medical equipment to meet international health standards.


[1] Richard J. Wolitski et al., “The Public Health Response to the HIV Epidemic in the U.S.,” in Aids and Other Manifestations of HIV Infection, ed. Gary P. Wormser, 4th ed (Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2004), 983–1000.

[2] S Rosenthal and R Chen, “The Reporting Sensitivities of Two Passive Surveillance Systems for Vaccine Adverse Events.,” American Journal of Public Health 85, no. 12 (1995): 1706–9.

[3] Weizhong Yang et al., “Chapter 7 – China Infectious Diseases Automated-Alert and Response System (CIDARS),” in Early Warning for Infectious Disease Outbreak, ed. Weizhong Yang (Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2017), 133–61.

[4] M. A. Mayer, L. Fernández-Luque, and A. Leis, “Chapter 5 – Big Data For Health Through Social Media,” in Participatory Health Through Social Media, ed. Shabbir Syed-Abdul, Elia Gabarron, and Annie Y. S. Lau (Academic Press, 2016), 67–82.

[5] WHO, Framework for decision-making: implementation of mass vaccination campaigns in the context of COVID-19. Interim Guidance May 2020 (Geneva: 2020), https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Framework_Mass_Vaccination-2020.1, accessed February 17 2021.

[6] Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Betania Allen, and Carlos Conde González, “The Contribution of International Agencies to the Control of Communicable Diseases,” Archives of Medical Research 36, no. 6 (November 2005): 731–38.

Categories
Africa Ebola Humanitarianism International Health Medicine

Podcast: The International Response to the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa

Medical emergency personnel dealing with an Ebola outbreak in Guinea, 2014
© EC/ECHO

By Yang Liu BA, Philip Sanjath BA & Jonathan Schmidt BA

This podcast discusses the problems and lessons of the interventions by international actors during the Ebola outbreaks of 2014-2016.

 

Categories
Diplomacy Geopolitics Medicine Security State Surveillance

Podcast: The Practice of Quarantine in History

A 1883 cartoon depicting members of the New York Board of Health trying to contain immigrants suffering from Cholera. © Corbis Images

By Anna Dyshlevaya BA, Viviana Espinosa BA & Ksenia Shibaeva BA

The podcast discusses the emergence of quarantine as a historical practice.

Categories
Africa Colonialism Medicine

Podcast: Robert Koch in Colonial East Africa

 

Robert Koch (1843-1910) (source: Carl Zeiss Microscopy)

By Sofia Falzberger BA, Charlotte Fleischmann BA & Pamela Kultscher BA

The podcast discusses Robert Koch’s activities and medical experiments in Colonial East Africa.